The architecture of St. Andrew’s Church

The architecture of St. Andrew’s Church

St. Andrew’s Church was built in the Baroque style. Due to the complexity of the terrain, spring and groundwater, the church was placed on a 14-meter stylobate, which from the side of Andrew’s Descent looks like a two-story building.

The temple is located in the middle of a pentagonal terrace, which leads to an iron staircase with three platforms.

In plan, the church has the shape of a cross, the northern and southern branches of which are much shorter than the western and semicircular eastern: the length of the building – 31.7 m, width – 20.4 m, height from the porch to the cross on the central cupola – 50 m. The church has a five-domed composition, which consists of a large central cupola and four decorative towers, topped by buttresses, placed on the diagonal axes of the building between the branches of the cross.

Outside, the pylons are decorated with columns of the Corinthian order, placed on high pedestals – on two sides of each pylon. The pylons are crowned with slender towers, columns with capitals of the Ionic order, decorative niches, tops with lace crosses.

In the middle of the building rises a drum 10 m high and 14 m in diameter, in which eight semicircular windows are cut at the top. Above the drum rises a spherical cupola, which occupies a dominant position in the silhouette of the church. The cupola is divided by gilded ornament into eight sectors, each of which has a dormer. On the top of the cupola there are crown and cross.

The walls of the church building are divided horizontally by architectural profiles into three unequal parts: the base, the wall and the ensemble with gables. In the middle of the western facade is the only entrance with metal doors decorated with ornaments and crosses. Rhythms of single and double pilasters with Corinthian capitals, cornices of complex profile, embossed baroque ornaments are used in the decoration of the facades. Cast iron cartouches with the monogram of Empress Elizabeth are placed on the tympanums of the pediments.

The large and small windows of the main volume are decorated with stucco casing, and the capitals of the columns and pilasters are cast in cast iron and gilded. The drum of the bath is decorated with pilasters with Ionic capitals, entablature, cartouches.

The plastic and figurative expressiveness of the building largely determines the use of white, turquoise and gilding in the painting of facades.

The interior of St. Andrew’s Church with an area of ​​303 square meters – central-cupola columnless space, which clearly shows the cruciform plan of the building, the architectural division of the walls by pilasters, cornices and window openings. The branches of the cross are covered with torispherical vaults, and the supporting arches and sails of the central part support the drum, which is completed by the cupola.

According to the nature of the decoration of the temple inside it can be divided into two parts – the walls and the cupola. A cornice of complex profile runs along the perimeter of the room, and the verticals are emphasized by pilasters of the Ionic order. In the drum, eight windows alternate with the same number of double pilasters of the Corinthian order. The cupola is divided into eight triangular sectors, in each of them a dormer is cut and a painting canvas is placed. The windows in the interior are arranged in two tiers: in the first – large in size, semicircular; in the second – small round dormers.

The original cast iron floor of the church in the late nineteenth century was replaced by marble.