The Object of UNESCO
The Object of UNESCO
Kyiv: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra
Designed to rival Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, Kyiv’s Saint-Sophia Cathedral symbolizes the ‘new Constantinople’, capital of the Christian principality of Kyiv, which was created in the 11th century in a region evangelized after the baptism of St Vladimir in 988. The spiritual and intellectual influence of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra contributed to the spread of Orthodox thought and the Orthodox faith in the Russian world from the 17th to the 19th century.
Outstanding Universal Value
The Kyiv: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra represent two outstanding complexes of cultural heritage monuments from the Middle Ages and Early Modern period (Kyivan Rus’ and Hetmanate Periods).
The property consists of two separate components: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and its related monastic buildings and the monastic complex of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra with the Church of the Saviour at Berestovo.
Saint-Sophia Cathedral, located in the historic centre of Kyiv, is one of the major monuments representing the architectural and the monumental art of the early 11th century. The Cathedral was built with the participation of local builders and Byzantine masters during the reign of the Great Prince of Kyiv, Yaroslav the Wise, as the main Christian Church of the Kyivan Rus’ capital. The Cathedral has preserved its ancient interiors and the collection of mosaics and frescoes of the 11th century is unique for its integrity. Its masterpieces include the Pantocrator, the Virgin Orans, the Communion of the Apostles, the Deisis and the Annunciation. The architecture and monumental art of the Cathedral had a wide influence on the architecture and decoration of the Kyivan Rus’ temples. Monastic buildings constructed in the 17th and 18th centuries in the Ukrainian Baroque style surround the Cathedral. The architectural ensemble includes the bell tower, Metropolitan’s house, the refectory, the Zaborovsky gate, the south entrance tower, the cells of cathedral elders and the seminary encircled by a stone wall. Over the centuries, the Cathedral and monastic buildings have expressed a unique harmony of architectural and natural forms, and national spirit and have held a significant place in the traditional historic landscape of Kyiv.
The Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra is an architectural ensemble of monastic buildings situated on the plateau overlooking the right bank of the Dnieper River. The ensemble was formed over many centuries in organic combination with the landscape, and acts as a general urban dominant. Founded by St. Anthony and St. Theodosy in the 11th century, the monastery became a prominent spiritual and cultural centre that made a significant contribution to the development of education, art and medicine. The architectural ensemble of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra comprises unique surface and underground churches from the 11th to the 19th centuries, in a complex of labyrinthine caves that expands more than 600m, as well as domestic and household buildings from the 17th to the19th centuries. The architectural ensemble acquired its modern aspect as a result of construction activities in the 17th to the 18th centuries in the heyday of the Ukrainian Baroque. The main monuments of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra ensemble are the Dormition Cathedral, the Trinity Gate Church, the Great Bell Tower, the Church of All Saints, the Refectory Church, the monastery defensive walls with towers, the cave complexes of St. Anthony (Near) and St. Theodosy (Far) with surface churches, the Exaltation of the Cross and the Nativity of the Virgin and the Church of the Saviour on Berestovo.
For centuries, the Kyiv-Pechersk Monastery, with relics of saints buried in caves, has been one of the most important Christian pilgrimage centres in the world.
Criterion (i): Kyiv: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra represents a masterpiece of human creative genius in both its architectural conception and its remarkable decoration.
Saint-Sophia Cathedral is a unique monument of architecture and monumental art of the early 11th century having the biggest preserved collection of mosaics and frescoes of that period. The Cathedral’s architecture is distinguished by supplementary naves added to the five-nave core and pyramidal spatial composition of the cross dome church. The monumental decoration of the Cathedral composes an ensemble unique for its conceptual design that reflects the major theological ideas of the time and is an outstanding example of Byzantine art. The huge pantheon of Christian saints depicted in the Cathedral has an unrivalled multiplicity among Byzantine monuments of that time. The mural paintings of the Cathedral also include a complex of unique secular frescoes in the stair towers made in the tradition of Byzantine art.
The ensemble of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra is a masterpiece of Ukrainian art that was definitely formed during the Baroque period. It integrates unique surface and underground buildings and structures of the 11th-19th centuries combined with a rich landscape.
Criterion (ii): The property is a result of the cultural interaction of the Kyivan Rus’, the Byzantine Empire and Western Europe. Architecture and monumental painting at the property reflect the changes of Byzantine architectural and artistic traditions that acquired a new sense under the influence of local vision. It revealed, in spiritual tradition as well as in architectural planning, encompassing the tradition of underground Orthodox cult architecture of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra. The Dormition Cathedral was an example for the construction of similar churches in the Eastern Europe region during the 12th to15th centuries.
Criterion (iii): Kyiv: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra bears exceptional testimony to the centuries-old Byzantine cultural traditions of neighbouring countries in general and of Kyivan Rus’ in particular. Over the centuries the property had a major spiritual influence in Eastern Europe.
Criterion (iv): Saint-Sophia Cathedral is a unique edifice that reflects in its architecture and mural decoration the peculiarities of churchwarden order. The construction of the Cathedral laid the foundation of an architectural school that influenced the cult architecture and monumental art of Kyivan Rus’ and then of Eastern Europe.
Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra is an exceptionally valuable architectural ensemble formed over the course of almost nine centuries, which reflects changes in stylistic trends in architecture, as well as the process of the improvement of engineering structures.
All important elements and attributes necessary to convey the Outstanding Universal Value are contained within the boundaries of the property and are preserved.
According to the original design, Saint-Sophia Cathedral was built as a dominant architectural element of the urban environment open to a wide and overall view. In the 19th century, the setting of the Cathedral changed due to the modification of the traditional urban fabric.
The integrity of the ensemble of the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra suffered during the Second World War, when the Dormition Cathedral, the main Lavra church, was almost entirely destroyed, with the exception of its southeast tower. In 1999-2000, the Cathedral was reconstructed according to the architectural forms of the period of the Ukrainian Baroque in the late 18th century.
With regards to the hydrogeological conditions, the Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra caves require a constant monitoring over the state of their preservation and the implementation of preventive measures.
Rapid urban development, particularly from high-rise buildings, and the lack of protection and planning mechanisms can threaten the immediate surroundings of the property. The integrity of the property in terms of spatial links between its components and their relationship with the surrounding urban and monastic river landscapes also requires a structured planning to address any potential threat.
The property’s attributes reflect its Outstanding Universal Value. All built elements are restored by using original materials.
Reconstruction works undertaken at Saint-Sophia were awarded the “European Gold Medal for the Protection of Historic Monuments” in 1987. Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings are used as a museum for educational purposes and for state events.
Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra is used for museum purposes as well as for religious practices that correspond to its original purpose.
Although the dominance of the silhouette of the ensemble has been diminished by urban development, the traditional panoramas and silhouettes of Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra along the Dnieper River are preserved.
Protection and management requirements
Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra was declared a “State historical and cultural reserve” in 1926 and Saint-Sophia Cathedral with Related Monastic buildings in 1934.
The property is managed according to the relevant legislation, including the Laws of Ukraine “On Protection of Cultural Heritage”, “On Protection of Archaeological Heritage”. In addition, various Decrees of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine are providing the site-specific legal framework for the protection, conservation and use of the property.
The National Conservation Area “Saint-Sophia of Kyiv” and the National Kyiv-Pechersk Historical and Cultural Reserve are managed by the Ministry of Culture of Ukraine, which is now responsible for the unified operational management of the whole property.
According to the national legislation Plans of the Territory Organization of both components of the property (National Conservation Area “Saint-Sophia of Kyiv” and Kyiv-Pechersk National Historical and Cultural Reserve) were developed. These plans define the boundaries and regimes for the buffer zone of the property, the action plan for restoration, conservation and protection of the property. The above-mentioned plans correspond to the Conservation Plan. Moreover, annual plans of restorations of monuments, territories and engineering systems of the property are approved at the national level.
In order to secure the preservation of the Varangian caves, a draft conservation program and an action plan have been developed for those sections of the caves that require preventive and rehabilitation measures.
To address conservation and management challenges, the Management Plan will need to be fully operational. Enforcement of legislative and regulatory measures will be crucial to ensure that the Outstanding Universal Value of the property is sustained. Planning tools will need to be coordinated to ensure that a policy, based on studies of the urban landscape and defined views, is in place to control development within the buffer zone and its wider setting.